The thirteen rules of Rabbi Ishmael above referred to are not to
be found together in any part of the Talmud, but they are
collected for repetition in the Liturgy, and are as follows:--
1. Inference is valid from minor to major.
2. From similar phraseology.
3. From the gist or main point of one text to that of other
4. Of general and particular.
5. Of particular and general.
6. From a general, or a particular and a general, the ruling
both of the former and the latter is to be according to the
middle term, i.e., the one which is particularized.
7. From a general text that requires a particular instance, and
8. When a particular rule is laid down for something which has
already been included in a general law, the rule is to apply to
9. When a general rule has an exception, the exception mitigates
and does not aggravate the rule.
10. When a general rule has an exception not according
therewith, the exception both mitigates and aggravates.
11. When an exception to a general rule is made to substantiate
extraneous matter, that matter cannot be classed under the said
general rule, unless the Scripture expressly says so.
12. The ruling is to be according to the context, or to the
general drift of the argument.
13. When two texts are contradictory, a third is to be sought
that reconciles them.
Rabbi Akiva was forty years of age when he began to study, and after
thirteen years of study he began publicly to teach.
THE TALMUD, _Avoth d'Rab. Nathan._